The real-life mother and daughter will play screen relatives Ruth and Freya in the forthcoming I Am Ruth, which sees Winslet as concerned mother Ruth who is increasingly worried by daughter Freya's absorption by social media and mental health decline.
It has been co-authored by Winslet and I Am series creator Dominic Savage to examine the mental health crisis young people are facing.
Mare of Easttown star Winslet said: “The collaborative and sensitive way in which Dominic Savage goes about creating and filming each episode of I Am is challenging, rewarding and completely immersive. The actors become these roles, and there is simply no room for pretending.
"It's a working environment that any actor would give anything to be a part of, and I can safely say with my hand on heart that I will never forget the things we learnt as we made this piece. The low key, quiet nature in which we put this together is how I aspire to work all the time.
"Often creative environments can be big and overwhelming, but part of Dominic's directorial process is to keep things to a bare minimum and just focus on the actors and the world we are creating alongside him, and with his unwavering support. It was a privilege and an inspiration to work with Dominic Savage. He's simply extraordinary."
This is the first episode in the third season of the female-led anthology, which has covered issues including coercive control, mental health and ageing.
Savage said: "Creating I Am Ruth for Channel 4 has been an honour as well a sublime creative experience for me. Collaborating closely with the incredible Kate Winslet to bring this important story surrounding child mental health to the screen has been an absolute highlight of my filmmaking career.
"It encapsulates everything that I love about making drama - experimental, raw, instinctive, with fearless acting, and above all, about something that affects all of us in some way. I believe that many parents and children will relate to our story of immense difficulty and hope."
I Am Ruth will air on Channel 4 later this year.