It's World Mental Health Day on October 10 and this year's theme set by the World Federation for Mental Health is 'Mental Health in an Unequal World'.
While most of us may feel that's an ongoing problem to fix, there are steps we can all take to help the people around us who are struggling, whether openly or secretly.
The usual advice to anyone experiencing difficulties from every mental health organisation, high-profile advocates such as Prince Harry and Prince William, and self-help books, is 'talk'.
They encourage those who are feeling negative or anxious to open up, reach out and reveal exactly what's causing the mental or emotional pain - which is entirely correct advice. The only problem is, is the absence of a trained therapist, who do you reach out to - and what if they say all the wrong things?
What if we could all learn from trained therapists exactly what -and what not - to say, and use those skills to help others feel better, without the constant fear of somehow making things worse?
Here's the best advice from the people who deal with mental health issues and crises every day.
PEOPLE WANT TO BE FULLY LISTENED TO
"People underestimate how important it is to help someone feel like they’re being heard. Most of the time, when friends are offloading to you, what they really want is to be fully listened to," says Marianne Rizkallah, Head Music Therapist at northlondonmusictherapy.com.
"It’s not just what you say but what you do. If you say to someone you’re here to listen, then listen. Don’t interrupt. Don’t judge. Try and put yourself in your loved one’s shoes. Empathy is the most important thing you can offer.
"Try reflecting back what someone has said, using their words and phrases.
"If a friend is telling you how devastated they feel about a breakup, replying using their word: “I can really hear how devastated you feel about this”. It’s a very direct way of showing someone that you’re listening to them and that you understand."
ASK TWICE IF THEY'RE OK
"People rarely offer right away that they are struggling, so if you have an inkling it's important to ask twice. When people say they are fine, ask again 'But how are you really?'" says Suzie Grazier, psychological wellbeing practitioner at www.thinkwisepwp.com.
T"ry to resist jumping in and offering advice. Very often, less is more.
"Instead of offering solutions, try validating statements like, 'it sounds like you're having a tough time right now'.
"Instead of looking for the right thing to say or assuming they need a certain response, ask them 'what do you need right now?' Or 'how can I help?'"
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ASK OPEN QUESTIONS
"Ask open and clarifying questions. You really want to listen non-judgmentally and then help them to take the next step," says psychologist and mental health first aider Lis Cashin.
"Whether that's to talk to someone else, seek help from GP or a therapist. Or just talking it through with a trusted friend may be all that they need."
"Don't say, 'Cheer up', or 'It's not that bad', and don't interrupt or hijack the conversation to be about you or advise the other person when you don't know the full picture."
"Good things to say include, 'Thank you so much for sharing that with me. I know it can take a lot of courage,' 'That sounds really tough', 'I want to make sure you get the right help and support and I'm not qualified to do that, but let me help you find someone that is.'"
BE PHYSICALLY PRESENT
"A lot of the things you can to do help support someone who is struggling can be non verbal too. Simply being physically present with someone who is feeling anxious or depressed can be incredibly supportive and soothing" says Dr Zoë Watson, an East London based GP with a special interest in mental health.
"Generally, people in the depths of a mental health crisis don’t want advice, they don’t want to be told what to do, they don’t want to be told what helped this person or that person.
"They are experiencing emotional trauma and the brain simply isn’t responsive to - albeit often well meaning - advice. Offering unsolicited advice may in fact lead to further feelings of depression and inadequacy, due to the fact they will often feel too tired/anxious/withdrawn to even contemplate leaving the house."
DON'T PUT PRESSURE ON YOURSELF TO SOLVE IT
"You're unlikely to be the cause of a person's issue, and you aren't going to be the full solution either, so free yourself of that pressure," says psychotherapist Katerina Georgiou.
"Think of yourself as one person in a chain of people and things that can support the person turning to you. The part you play matters, and this is part of a wider network of support.
"When someone is struggling, it's common for them to feel guilty for asking for help, and feel under pressure to be ok. Factor this in when checking in with someone, no matter what they're going through. Rather than asking "how are you doing?", which can be helpful up to a point, simply send them signals now and then that you're keeping them in mind.
"As a general rule, don't make any promises you can't keep: eg, don't say 'I'm here for you anytime' if you're not, or 'you can talk to me about anything' if you can't. Think about what you can offer. Is it a hug, a text, a call? Is it a visit, or a long chat? It's good to know this in advance, and communicate that to whoever you're supporting."
HELP IN SMALL WAYS
"Having someone who can do a quick shop or just pop round to wash the dishes will make a huge difference to someone with depression who will find these tasks daunting," says psychothepiast Gin Lalli.
"This will help them feel better in their own environment and encourage them to start doing these things for themselves. Try and be specific, rather than saying 'what can I do?' try 'why don’t I wash up while you make us a cup of tea?' You’ll be helping them to take some action."
LOOK FOR SUPPORT TOGETHER
"If you don’t have the information about the best professional service to hand, agree to either look for it, or suggest you do it together" says therapist Marilyn Devonish. "Say, 'I know there are organisations out there who can help. Let’s see what we can find.'
"As an ex-Samaritans volunteer, they are always still high on my list as a brilliant listening service, and are there 24 hours a day, 365 days a year."
BUT LET THEM CHOOSE THEIR OWN PATH
"You shouldn’t say to people who are struggling, I have a great therapist, take their number," says Luoise Chunn, founder of psychotherapist-finding site Welldoing.org
"Finding a therapist is an individual process. Research shows that it is not type of therapy or level of experience that dictates success in therapy, but the therapeutic alliance, the relationship made between client and therapist.
"They should contact several, speak to them on the phone, even have first sessions with more than one, then work out who they feel comfortable with."
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