The International Court of Justice (ICJ) has ordered Israel to prevent acts of genocide against Palestinians and do more to help civilians in Gaza.
However, it stopped short of ordering a ceasefire requested by South Africa, which had brought the case to The Hague.
While this denied Palestinian hopes of a binding order to halt the war in Gaza, it also represented a legal setback for Israel, which had hoped to throw out the case.
The ICJ, also known as the World Court, ordered Israel to take all measures in its power to prevent acts of genocide as it wages war against Hamas militants in Gaza.
The court, having noted the situation on the ground is at "serious risk of deteriorating further", said Israel must act to improve the humanitarian situation for Palestinians.
The court did not rule on the core of the case brought by South Africa: whether genocide has occurred in Gaza. But it recognised the right of Palestinians in Gaza to be protected from acts of genocide.
The ICJ called for the "immediate and unconditional release" of hostages abducted from Israel during the 7 October attack by Hamas which led to Israel's retaliatory attacks on Hamas-run Gaza.
The Palestinian Foreign Ministry said the court's decision was a welcome reminder "no state is above the law".
Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu said Israel was committed to international law after the World Court's ruling - but added it has a basic right to defend itself. Israel's national security minister posted on X saying: "Hague schmague"
Follow how the day unfolded below:
LIVE COVERAGE IS OVER27 updates
Mandela 'will be smiling in his grave' at ruling
Nelson Mandela "will be smiling in his grave" at the World Court order imposing emergency measures against Israel over its war in Gaza, South Africa's justice minister Ronald Lamola said.
"We believe that former President Mandela will be smiling in his grave as one of the advocates for the Genocide Convention," he told Reuters.
"It is a victory for the international law that there could be no exceptionalism in any part of the world and Israel cannot be exempt from complying with its international obligations."
Who is Julia Sebutinde?
The case was heard by 17 judges in the ICJ on Friday.
One of them, Julia Sebutinde, voted against her colleagues in each of the six measures imposed by the court.
In a "dissenting opinion" issued afterwards, Judge Sebutinde said: “The dispute between the state of Israel and the people of Palestine is essentially and historically a political one, calling for a diplomatic or negotiated settlement, and for the implementation in good faith of all relevant Security Council resolutions by all parties concerned with a view to finding a permanent solution whereby the Israeli and Palestinian peoples can peacefully coexist.”
She added “South Africa has not demonstrated… that the acts allegedly committed by Israel… were committed with the necessary genocidal intent.”
Sebutinde has been a member of the ICJ since 2012, when she became the first African woman to sit on the court.
The scene in the courtroom earlier today as the ruling was made
Oxfam: UK must stop arms sales
Aleema Shivji, interim CEO of Oxfam GB, said: “The UK government must respect the court ruling and cease its complicity in the crisis, starting by immediately stopping arms sales to Israel given the risk of them being used to commit war crimes, and calling for an immediate and permanent ceasefire. Anything less will be a stain on the UK's reputation as an upholder of international law.
According to the Campaign Against Arms Trade, the UK has licensed £489m of military exports to Israel since 2015.
Shivji continued: “Palestinians should not have to endure another day of this suffering. We urge the UK and all countries to do all in their power to ensure those responsible for violations on both sides are held accountable, to secure the release of all hostages and detainees, and to end Israel’s decades-long occupation of Palestinian territory.”
What's the latest in the conflict?
On the ground in Gaza, the war has entered a particularly destructive phase, with the heaviest fighting in weeks now taking place in crowded areas.
On Friday, Israel kept up its bombardment of the main southern city of Khan Younis. It said it was involved in "intensive battles", with forces striking dozens of Hamas fighters and infrastructure from the air and ground.
Residents said gun battles raged overnight, with Israeli forces blowing up buildings and houses in the western part of the city, in what has become one of its biggest offensives so far - waged among hundreds of thousands of displaced civilians.
Israel said it had discovered 200 tunnel shafts and destroyed more than 130 militant infrastructure sites in its latest operations, as well as killing "numerous militants".
Palestinians say Israel has blockaded hospitals, making it impossible for rescuers to reach the dead and wounded. Israel denies blockading hospitals and says Hamas fighters are to blame for fighting near them for operating there.
'The real issue is the people of Palestine'
Naledi Pandor, South Africa's minister of international relations and cooperation, told reporters outside the court: "The real issue is the people of Palestine who are being killed every day. The people of Palestine who are sleeping in the cold. The people of Palestine who are denied food, water and energy.
"That is the critical issue that all of us should focus upon."
Security minister says 'Hague shmague' in response to ruling
Itamar Ben-Gvir, Israel's national security minister, posted "Hague shmague" on X (formerly known as Twitter) following the ICJ ruling.
The Hague is the Dutch city where the ICJ is located.
South Africa: 'In exercising the order, there would have to be a ceasefire'
In its ruling, the ICJ stopped short of calling for an immediate ceasefire.
But Naledi Pandor, South Africa's minister of international relations and cooperation, told reporters outside the court: "I believe that in exercising the order, there would have to be a ceasefire.
"Without it, the order doesn't actually work."
She added: "I would have wanted the word 'cessation' included in the judgement but I am satisfied with the directives that have been given."
ICJ 'ruled in favour of humanity'
Riyadh Maliki, the State of Palestine's minister of foreign affairs, said the ICJ "ruled in favour of humanity and international law".
"States now have clear legal obligations to stop Israel’s genocidal war on the Palestinian people in Gaza and to make sure that they are not complicit.
"The ICJ order is an important reminder that no state is above the law. It should serve as a wake-up call for Israel and actors who enabled its entrenched impunity."
Israel committed to international law, but will defend itself - Netanyahu
Prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu said Israel was committed to international law after the World Court ordered it to take action to prevent acts of genocide in its war in Gaza.
But he reiterated that it had a right to defend itself.
Responding to the case brought by South Africa, Netanhayu said the charge of genocide was "outrageous."
"Like every country, Israel has a basic right to defend itself," he said in a statement.
"The World Court in the Hague justly rejected the outrageous demand to deprive us of this right," he said, seemingly referring to the fact that the court stopped short of calling for an immediate ceasefire.
"But the mere claim that Israel is committing genocide against Palestinians is not only false, it's outrageous, and the willingness of the court to even discuss this is a disgrace that will not be erased for generations."
Demonstrations outside the ICJ
Climate activist Greta Thunberg was among the protesters outside the International Court of Justice (ICJ) as the judges ruled on emergency measures against Israel.
'Decisive victory for international rule of law' - South Africa
South Africa has claimed a "decisive victory for the international rule of law" after the International Court of Justice ruled in favour of its request to impose emergency measures against Israel over its military operations in Gaza.
In a statement, its department of international relations and cooperation added: "South Africa sincerely hopes that Israel will not act to frustrate the application of this order, as it has publicly threatened to do, but that it will instead act to comply with it fully, as it is bound to do."
The sitting has ended. In summary...
the World Court ordered Israel to take all measures in its power to prevent acts of genocide as it wages war against Hamas militants in Gaza
it said Israel must take measures to improve the humanitarian situation for Palestinians in the enclave
the court did not rule on the core of the case brought by South Africa: whether genocide has occurred in Gaza. But it recognised the right of Palestinians in Gaza to be protected from acts of genocide
in bringing the case, South Africa had requested an immediate halt to Israel's military operation. The court did not grant that
World Court calls for release of hostages
Judge Joan Donoghue says the court is "gravely concerned" about the fate of the hostages abducted from Israel during the 7 October attack by Hamas.
She says the court is calling for "their immediate and unconditional release".
World Court: Israel must prevent genocide and improve humanitarian situation
The World Court has ordered Israel to take all measures within its power to prevent acts of genocide in Gaza.
It said Israel must ensure its forces do not commit genocide and take measures to improve the humanitarian situation.
Israel must also report to the court within a month on what it's doing to uphold the order.
'Serious risk of deteriorating further'
Judge Joan Donoghue notes civilians in Gaza are "extremely vulnerable".
She says the situation is at "serious risk of deteriorating further" before the court issues its final decision.
World Court: Palestinians in Gaza have right to be protected from acts of genocide
Judge Joan Donoghue says the court recognises the right of Palestinians in Gaza to be protected from acts of genocide.
Palestinians are 'protected group'
Judge Joan Donoghue has said Palestinians appear to be a "protected group" under the Genocide Convention.
World Court will not throw out the case, as Israel has requested
Judge Joan Donoghue says "the court considers it cannot accede to Israel's request for the case to be removed".
World Court 'deeply concerned' about conflict
Judge Joan Donoghue says the court is "acutely aware of the extent of the human tragedy that is unfolding in the region and is deeply concerned about the continuing loss of life and human suffering".
Judges arrive in court
The judges have arrived in court.
Judge Joan Donoghue, president of the court, says: "The sitting is open."
She is going through the procedural aspects of the case.
Erdogan speaks out ahead of ruling
Turkish president Tayyip Erdogan has said he expects the World Court to rule Israel has committed genocide crimes in Gaza, as UN judges were set to rule whether to order Israel to halt its assault on the enclave.
Speaking to reporters after Friday prayers in Istanbul, Erdogan said Turkey, which has heavily criticised Israel for its attacks on Gaza, was closely following the ruling and expected a "positive outcome."